Beverages 2 : Wine

What is Wine?

Wine is an Alcoholic Beverage obtained by the Fermentation of the Juice of Freshly Gathered Grapes, the fermentation of which has been carried through in the District of its Origin and according to local tradition and practice. Wine is merely the Fermented Grape Juice with no addition of any sort. Wikipedia says Archaeological evidence has established the earliest-known production of wine from fermenting grapes during the late Neolithic or early Chalcolithic in the Caucasus and the northern edge of the Middle East.Earliest discovered sites containing shards of wine-stained pottery, dated to c. 6000 BC in Georgia, and c. 5000 BC in Iran.
Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (8th century BC, but possibly relating earlier compositions), Alkman (7th century BC), and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name “Kha’y”, a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king’s personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten.
How to make wine?

Main Wine producing Regions 

  • France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Australia, Spain, Argentina, etc
  • France, Italy & Germany produce some of the finest quality Wine and Italy produces the largest quantity of Wine in the world.
It is divided to two main categories  :

Traditional wines(old world wine) 

  • France 
  • Italy 
  • Germany
  • Switzerland
  • Spain
  • Austria
  • England
  • Poland

New world wine

  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Argentina
  • United State
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • South Africa
Wine Belt in the World

Different types of wine

  1. Table wine
  2. Sparkling wine
  3. Fortified wine
Table Wine :

Table wine further categorized as,
White wine           Colorless to lightish green in color
Rose wine             Pink in color
Red wine              Dark red in color
  • White and Red wine serving in Chill
  • Red wine serving in room temperature 
White wine

Rose wine
Red wine

Sparkling Wine :

This is a Wine which gives a sparkling affect and bubbles up when the bottle is opened. A Sparkling Wine is where some of the Carbon Dioxide gas released from the Second Fermentation is retained in the Bottle. Different Countries have special terms to describe Sparkling Wines displayed on the Wine Label.

Sparkling Wines are named as,
  • SEKT
  • ASTI


Champagne is the Sparkling Wine made in the Champagne District of France. No other District or a country could produce a Sparkling Wine with the name Champagne. Dom Perignon is a brand name of a Sparkling Wine produced in the district of Champagne in France.
The standard name given for the Sparkling Wine produced in Germany is called SEKT. Henkel Trocken is the brand name of a Sparkling Wine produced in Germany.
The standard name given for a Sparkling Wine in Italy is called ASTI. ASTI SPUMANTE is a brand name of a Sparkling Wine produced in Italy. The name itself indicates it is an Italian Sparkling Wine. 
Dom Perignon
 Henkel Trocken

Fortified wine :

This is a Grape Wine strengthened with the addition of a Grape Brandy, blended and matured before bottling.
Now known within the European Economic Commission (EEC) as Liqueur Wine or Vins de Liqueur. The Alcoholic Strength is between 15% – 22%

There are many Fortified Wines in the world, out of which some famous types are,
  • Port wine 
  • Maderia wine
  • Sherry
  • Marsala

Port wine
  • Alcoholic Strength is 18% – 20%
  • Some famous names are Ruby Port, Tawny Port,& Vintage Port
Maderia wine

  • Made on the Portuguese island of Madeira.
  • Alcoholic strength is 18%. Some famous name are Sercial (dry), Verdello (medium), Bual (sweet), Malmsey (very sweet)

  • Alcoholic strength is 15% – 18%
  • Some famous names are Bristol Cream, Amontillado, and Oloroso.
  • A dark Sweet Wine from Marsala in Sicily.
Condition affecting the quality of wine
  • Grape
  • Soil
  • Climate
  • Viticulture
  • Vinification
  • Luck of the year
Grape Varities

Red Grape
White grape
Wine and food combination

Asparagus – A different flavor for Wine, White Burgundy,Chardonnay, Dry Gewürztraminer.

Avocado – Medium White Wine Graves

Caviar – Champagne .

Consommé – Medium dry Sherry or Madeira

Fish, Seer, Prawns – Fine dry Medium White Wine – Chablis,Pouilly Fume, Graves

Oyster – Chablis, Muscadet, Graves

Salmon (Fresh) – Chardonnay,  Chablis  Grand Cru.

ChickenTurkey – Red Burgundy Wine

Beef Stew – Pomerol, St. Emilion

Pork – Very good Dry or wet White or Red

Lamb – Red Bordeaux

Liver – Young Red Beaujolais, Zinfandel

Foie Gras – Beaujolais or a Light Young Red Wine

Cheese – Light Cream Cheese go well with Full Bodied White, Rose and Light Reds.

Sweets & Puddings – Champagne works well with Sweets & Puddings

Dessert – Sauternes, Sherry, Port, Madeira, Marsala
Wine Glasses

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